Ephemeris Time

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Ephemeris Time

</dt>
The uniform measure of time defined by the laws of dynamics and determined in principle from the orbital motions of the planets, specifically the orbital motion of the earth as represented by Newcomb's Tables of the Sun. Compare universal time. </dd>
Beginning with the volume for 1960 the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac uses ephemeris time as the tabular argument in the fundamental ephemerides of the sun, moon, and planets.
A gravitational ephemeris expresses the position of a celestial body as a function of ephemeris time; and, at any instant, the measure of ephemeris time is the value of the argument at which the ephemeris position is the same as the actual position at the instant. The ephemeris time at any instant is obtained from observation by directly comparing observed position of the sun, moon, and planets with gravitational ephemerides of their coordinates; observations of the moon are the most effective and expeditious for this purpose. An accurate determination, however, requires observations over a more or less extended period; in practice, it takes the form of determining the time correction Missing Image:img src="SP7-e_files/deltabg.gif"T that must be applied to universal time (U.T.) to obtain ephemeris time:

E.T. = U.T. + Missing Image:img src="SP7-e_files/deltabg.gif"T'
The

universal time at any instant may be obtained with little delay from observations of the dirunal motions.
The fundamental epoch from which ephemeris time is reckoned is the epoch that Newcomb designated as 1900 January 0, Greenwich mean noon, but which actually is 1900 January 0 day 12 hours E.T.; the instant to which this designation is assigned is the instant near the beginning of the calendar year A.D. 1900 when the geometric mean longitude of the Sun referred to the mean equinox of data was 279 degrees 41 minutes 48.04 seconds. Ephemeris time is the measure of time in which Newcomb's Tables of the Sun agree with observation.
The primary unit of ephemeris time is the tropical year, defined by the mean motion of the sun in longitude at the epoch 1900 January 0 day 12 hours E.T.; its length in ephemeris days is determined by the coefficient of T in Newcomb's expression for the geometric mean longitude of the sun L referred to the mean equinox of date, given among the elements of the sun. [[/a>|/a> ]]

References

This article is based on NASA's Dictionary of Technical Terms for Aerospace Use